Maryland 8th Grade Science Standards

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1 Colonization (1607-1754)

  • 1.1 Interactions in the New World
    • 1.1.1 Students will evaluate the interaction of European, African, and Native cultures in colonial America by:
      • 1.1.1.a Describing the varied cultures and geographic distribution of Native populations in North America prior to European arrival.
      • 1.1.1.b Assessing the range of reactions of Native populations to the colonization of North America.
      • 1.1.1.c Analyzing the factors causing European migration to North America.
      • 1.1.1.d Identifying the causes and impacts of slavery in colonial North America.
  • 1.2 Colonial North America
    • 1.2.1 Students will analyze how geography and economics influenced the location and development of Colonial North American regions by:
      • 1.2.1.a Comparing the economic, political, social, religious and ethnic composition of colonial regions of New England, the mid-Atlantic, the Chesapeake, and the South.
      • 1.2.1.b Evaluating the impact of mercantilism on the political and economic relationship between the North American colonies and Great Britain.

2 The American Revolution (1754-1783)

  • 2.1 French and Indian War
    • 2.1.1 Students will analyze the causes and consequences of the conflict among and between Native Americans and European colonies by:
      • 2.1.1.a Explaining the sources of conflict among and between Native Americans, European powers, and Americans’ migrating west of the Appalachian Mountains.
      • 2.1.1.b Assessing how the French and Indian War impacted Native American alliances, British colonial policies, and American colonists.
  • 2.2 British Acts and Colonial Acts of Resistance
    • 2.2.1 Students will evaluate the significance of the end of salutary neglect as a turning point in American History by:
      • 2.2.1.a Analyzing the effect of British policies on the American colonies.
      • 2.2.1.b Evaluating the effectiveness of the methods of colonial resistance to British policies.
      • 2.2.1.c Identifying the principles expressed in the Declaration of Independence.
  • 2.3 The American Revolution
    • 2.3.1 Students will evaluate the relative importance of key factors that led to an American victory in the Revolutionary War by:
      • 2.3.1.a Analyzing the domestic, military, geographic, and diplomatic factors that led to the American defeat of the British.
      • 2.3.1.b Assessing how free and enslaved African Americans, women and Native Americans, contributed to and were impacted by the American Revolution.

3 Founding of the New Government (1776-1791)

  • 3.1 The Articles of Confederation
    • 3.1.1 Students will evaluate the historical significance of the Articles of Confederation by:
      • 3.1.1.a Explaining the structure and the powers of the Articles of Confederation.
      • 3.1.1.b Analyzing the success and failures of the Articles of Confederation.
  • 3.2 Constitutional Convention
    • 3.2.1 Students will evaluate the reasons for the development of the United States Constitution by:
      • 3.2.1.a Describing the purpose of the Constitutional Convention.
      • 3.2.1.b Analyzing how the Great Compromise addressed regional interests and differences.
      • 3.2.1.c Describing the sectional debate over slavery and how the Constitution addressed slavery and freedom.
  • 3.3 United States Constitution
    • 3.3.1 Students will evaluate the impact of the Constitution on the structure of the United States government by:
      • 3.3.1.a Identifying the goals of the Constitution as stated in the Preamble.
      • 3.3.1.b Explaining how the Constitution embeds key principles of checks and balances, separation of powers, federalism, popular sovereignty, individual rights, and limited government.
      • 3.3.1.c Identifying the powers enumerated and denied to each branch of government as outlined in the Constitution.
  • 3.4 Ratification and the Bill of Rights
    • 3.4.1 Students will analyze how the Bill of Rights resolved the issues over the ratification of the Constitution by:
      • 3.4.1.a Analyzing the Federalist and Anti-Federalist arguments for and against the ratification of the Constitution.
      • 3.4.1.b Evaluating the impact of the Bill of Rights on the ratification of the Constitution.

4 A New Nation (1787-1825)

  • 4.1 The Early Republic
    • 4.1.1 Students will evaluate the short and long term impact of government decisions made during Federalist administrations by:
      • 4.1.1.a Identifying the impact President George Washington had on setting precedents for the office of the President.
      • 4.1.1.b Evaluating the evolution and impact of the Federalist and Democratic-Republican parties on domestic and foreign policy.
      • 4.1.1.c Explaining the impact of Marbury v Madison (1803) on the power of the Supreme Court.
    • 4.1.2 Students will evaluate the historical significance of the Louisiana Purchase on the United States by:
      • 4.1.2.a Analyzing the diplomatic and constitutional challenges involved in the Louisiana Purchase.
      • 4.1.2.b Assessing the political and economic impact of the Louisiana Purchase and its impact on the United States relations with native populations.
  • 4.2 The Second War of Independence
    • 4.2.1 Students will analyze the emerging foreign policy of the United States by:
      • 4.2.1.a Identifying the domestic and foreign causes of the War of 1812.
      • 4.2.1.b Explaining the political, geographic, and military factors that led to the American defeat of the British.
      • 4.2.1.c Analyzing how the War of 1812 impacted Native tribes, American political parties, and American nationalism.

5 Geographic Expansion and Political Division (1820-1860)

  • 5.1 Sectional Growth
    • 5.1.1 Students will analyze the influence of industrialization, technological, and demographic changes on society by:
      • 5.1.1.a Assessing the impact of technological developments in communication and transportation.
      • 5.1.1.b Evaluating the growth of the factory system and its impacts on labor, women, and migration.
      • 5.1.1.c Assessing the impact of the Supreme Court of John Marshall on national power and economic growth.
      • 5.1.1.d Identifying the push and pull factors driving antebellum immigration.
    • 5.1.2 Students will examine the institution, conditions, and expansion of slavery while analyzing methods of social and political resistance by:
      • 5.1.2.a Evaluating the impact of technology on the geographic expansion of the institution of slavery.
      • 5.1.2.b Analyzing the conditions that defined life for the enslaved.
      • 5.1.2.c Contrasting the various ways in which enslaved African Americans and free blacks resisted enslavement, oppression, and institutionalized racism.
      • 5.1.2.d Evaluating the effectiveness of the Missouri Compromise in resolving the influence of slavery on politics and sectionalism.
  • 5.2 Jacksonian Era
    • 5.2.1 Students will evaluate the political, economic, and social impact of Jacksonian Democracy by:
      • 5.2.1.a Explaining the impact of President Andrew Jackson’s presidency on sectional politics, democracy, electoral processes, and the economy.
      • 5.2.1.b Contrasting the Native and American arguments surrounding the issue of Native American rights and land ownership.
  • 5.3 Social Reform Movements
    • 5.3.1 Students will analyze the impact of antebellum reform movements on American politics and society by:
      • 5.3.1.a Evaluating the impact of social reform movements on temperance, prison, and educational reform.
      • 5.3.1.b Tracing the evolution, arguments, and impacts of the antebellum women’s movement.
      • 5.3.1.c Identifying the methods, arguments, and impacts of the abolitionist movement.
  • 5.4 Westward Expansion
    • 5.4.1 Students will evaluate the political, social, and economic impact of westward expansion on individuals and groups by:
      • 5.4.1.a Assessing multiple perspectives on Manifest Destiny and its impacts on territorial possession.
      • 5.4.1.b Analyzing the consequences of the rapid settlement of California, Oregon, and Texas.
      • 5.4.1.c Explaining the causes, course, and consequences of the Mexican-American War.
      • 5.4.1.d Assessing the impacts of the Compromise of 1850.
  • 5.5 Path to Disunion
    • 5.5.1 Students will evaluate the causes of the Civil War by:
      • 5.5.1.a Evaluating the impact of territorial expansion, the Supreme Court, and individual action on sectional polarization.
      • 5.5.1.b Assessing the impact of Abraham Lincoln, the Republican Party and the election of 1860 on the secession of the southern states.
      • 5.5.1.c Explaining the causes of the Civil War and evaluate the importance of slavery as a central cause of the conflict.

6 Civil War and Reunion (1860-1896)

  • 6.1 The Civil War
    • 6.1.1 Students will analyze factors affecting the outcome of the Civil War by:
      • 6.1.1.a Contrasting the goals, resources, military technology, and strategies of the Union and Confederacy.
      • 6.1.1.b Evaluating how Union and Confederate political, military, and diplomatic leadership affected the outcome of the conflict.
    • 6.1.2 Students will evaluate the effectiveness of the United States Government in protecting the rights of individuals and groups during the Civil War by:
    • 6.1.2.a Evaluating the military and historic significance of the Emancipation Proclamation.
    • 6.1.2.b Evaluating the efficacy and constitutionality of President Abraham Lincoln’s suspension of the Writ of Habeas Corpus.
      • 6.1.2.c Describing economic opportunities and obstacles faced by soldiers, civilians, free and enslaved populations during the Civil War.
  • 6.2 Reconstruction and Reunion
    • 6.2.1 Students will analyze the political, economic, and social goals of Reconstruction by:
      • 6.2.1.a Contrasting the goals and policies of the Congressional and Presidential Reconstruction plans.
      • 6.2.1.b Identifying the legal and illegal actions used to deny political, social, and economic freedoms to African Americans.
      • 6.2.1.c Examining the ways in which African American communities fought to protect and expand their rights.
    • 6.2.2 Students will explain how the United States government protected or failed to protect the rights of individuals and groups by:
      • 6.2.2.a Assessing the factors that influenced the end of Reconstruction.
      • 6.2.2.b Evaluating the impact of the Supreme Court, debt peonage, Jim Crow Laws and disenfranchisement on the enforceability of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments.

7 Growth of Industrial America (1877-1890)

  • 7.1 Industrialization
    • 7.1.1 Students will analyze the causes and consequences of Industrialization in the late 19th century United States by:
      • 7.1.1.a Evaluating how improved use of resources, new technology and inventions, and transportation networks influenced the growth of industrialization and urbanization.
      • 7.1.1.b Describing the impact of business leaders, laissez-faire capitalism, and the use of trusts/monopolies on the American economy.
      • 7.1.1.c Evaluating the impact of industrialization and laissez-faire policies on labor.
      • 7.1.1.d Identifying responses to post-Civil War immigration.
    • 7.2.1 Students will analyze the causes and consequences of westward expansion by:
      • 7.2.1.a Describing the impact of geography and technology on the settlement of the west.
      • 7.2.1.b Evaluating the Native Americans responses to western migration.
      • 7.2.1.c Evaluating the impact of government actions on patterns of immigration.
      • 7.2.1.d Describing the impact of geographic expansion on rights for African Americans, Chinese immigrants, and the political and legal rights to women.

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